SCPS: A Social-aware Distributed Cyber-Physical Human-centric Search Engine
Advances in ubiquitous sensing, computing and wireless communication technologies are leading to the development of cyber-physical systems (CPS), which promise to revolutionize the way we interact with the physical world. CPS applications, such as healthcare monitoring, may involve many users and objects scattered over a wide area. One critical function of CPS is object search in the physical world through the cyber sphere that enables interaction between the cyber and physical spheres. Some of the previously proposed physical object search engines use RFID tracking, and others collect the information of object locations into a hierarchical centralized server. The difficulty of widely deploying RFID devices, the centralized search, and the need for periodical location information collection prevent CPS from achieving higher scalability and efficiency. To deal with this problem, we propose a Social-aware distributed Cyber-Physical human-centric Search engine (SCPS) that leverages the social network formed by wireless device users for object search. Without requiring periodical location information collection, SCPS locates objects held by users based on the routine user movement pattern. Moreover, using a social-aware Bayesian network, it can accurately predict the users’ locations even at the occurrence of exceptional (i.e., non-routine) events (e.g., raining) that break user movement pattern. Thus, SCPS is more advantageous than all previous social network based works which assume that user behaviors always follow a certain pattern. Further, SCPS conducts the search in a fully distributed manner by relying on a distributed hash table (DHT) structure. As a result, SCPS achieves high scalability, efficiency and location accuracy. Extensive real-trace driven simulation results show the superior performance of SCPS compared to other representative search methods including a hierarchical centralized method, a decentralized method, and two social network based methods. The results also show the effectiveness of different components of SCPS.